BIOLOGY MIDTERM REVIEW SHEET

 

NAME_________________________________________________MIDTERM REVIEW SHEET 2000 

Chapter 1 

  1. Living things require energy to carry on life processes, have the ability to reproduce, and are composed of ___________
  2. A _______________ disorder is inherited
  3. Cystic fibrosis & muscular dystrophy are examples of _________________ disorders
  4. Place the following steps of the scientific method in the correct order:

Predictions, observations, theory, hypothesis, verification, controlled testing

            ____________________________________________________________________________

  1. The English physician Ronald Ross wanted to try to find the cause of malaria. Based on his observations, Dr. Ross suggested that the Anopheles mosquito might spread malaria from person to person. This suggestion was a ____________________
  2. Scientific hypotheses are most often tested by the process of ________________________
  3. Scientific theory is absolutely certain (True/ False).
  4. To test his ideas, Ronald Ross performed an experiment. He looked for Plasmodium in the bodies of mosquitoes that had bitten people with malaria and then looked for Plasmodium in the bodies of mosquitoes that had not bitten people. This type of experiment is known as a ________________ experiment.
  5. What happens to a hypothesis that does not explain an observation? It is __________________
  6. Scientists usually design experiments with a good idea of expected results (True/ False)
  7. A unifying explanation for a broad range of observations is a ______________________
  8. A ___________________ experiment is one in which the condition that is suspected to cause an effect is compared to the same situation without the suspected condition.
  9. A testable, possible explanation of an observation _______________________
  10. The word “theory” in a scientific sense, is that of which a scientist is most certain (True/ False)
  11. The process by which plants capture energy and make complex molecules ___________________
  12. All organisms are composed of these tiny things! _________________
  13. Most of the energy used by life on earth comes from the _____________
  14. The smallest units that carry on all of the functions of life are called ___________________
  15. Define Homeostasis ______________________________________________________________

_______________________________________________________________________________

  1. Total magnification of a microscope is achieved by multiplying __________________ lens X _________________ lens

 

 Chapter 2

  1. Biology is the study of _______________
  2. ____________________ organization is a characteristic of all living things
  3. A substance that is composed of only one type of atom ___________________
  4. The smallest particle of matter that can retain the chemical properties of carbon is a carbon ________________
  5. Atoms are composed of: _______________ with a postitive charge, _______________ with a negative charge, and ________________ with no charge
  6. The bond formed when two atoms SHARE a pair of electrons is called a ___________________ bond
  7. An atom is chemically stable when it has ______ electrons in its outer energy level.
  8. The bond formed when electrons are lost or gained by two atoms is called a __________________ bond
  9. An atom that has gained or lost electrons is called a(n) ________________
  10. Because carbon has 4 electrons in its outer energy level, it can react with up to _____ other atoms to form covalent bonds
  11. Four types of organic macromolecules are ____________________, _____________________, _______________________, & ________________________
  12. Draw the structure of each type of macromolecule below:

 

 

 

 

 

  1. Carbohyrates are made by linking individual sugars together to form long chains called __________________________
  2. Animals store glucose in the form of ____________________
  3. Name three examples of a carbohydrate: ________________________, _____________________ & ___________________________-
  4. Lipids are soluble in ___________________
  5. Name three examples of fats _____________________, __________________________, & __________________________
  6. Long chains of amino acids are found in _________________________
  7. Proteins function in the human body as __________________ molecules & proteins
  8. Two types of nucleic acids: _____________ & _____________
  9. Lipids are (Polar/ Non-Polar)
  10. Define enzyme, and name two things that it does:

  

 

  1. All organic compounds contain the element _________________

 

Chapter 3

  1. The structure that regulates what enters & leaves the cell is the _______________________
  2. The smallest units of life in all living things are _______________
  3. Nonpolar molecules DO NOT HAVE ___________________ or __________________ poles
  4. A molecule that has a partial positive charge on one side, and a partial negative charge on the other side is called a ___________________ molecule
  5. When placed in the same container, water & oil do not mix because:

 

 

  1. The size to which a cell can grow is limited by its _________________ area
  2. Phospholipids contain ________________________, have long _________________ tails and short __________________ heads, and combine with ______________ to form the lipid bilayer that makes up the framework of the cell membrane
  3. Be able to IDENTIFY and DESCRIBE each of the membrane proteins found within the cell membrane (Know what they look like & what their functions are)

 

 

 

 

  1. An example of a prokaryotic cell is a bacterium (True/ False)
  2. Know this table: (Be sure to FILL IT IN from your notes!)

 

Eukaryotic

Prokaryotic

 

No Nucleus

Many Membrane-bound organelles

 

 

Most 1-10 um

Evolved 1.5 billion years ago

 

 

Only bacteria

 

  1. An important organelle that helps maintain homeostasis by moving supplies from one part of the cell to another _______________________
  2. Proteins are made in cells on the _______________________
  3. The packaging & distribution center of the cell is the _____________________
  4. Proteins that act like selective passageways in the cell’s membrane are known as _________________________
  5. Elongated proteins found on the surface of cells that identify the cells ____________________
  6. The organelles that make sugar in plant cells are _____________________
  7. Chloroplasts are like mitochondria because they both ____________________ food & release ______________________
  8. The internal transport system of the cell consists of a system of membranes called _____________________________
  9. The organelles associated with photosynthesis are the _______________________
  10. Three very distinctive features of a plant cell are ____________________, ______________________, & ________________________
  11. Plant cells have large, membrane-bound spaces in which water, waste products, and nutrients are stored. These places are known as _________________________

 

Chapter 4

  1. Know the definitions for, and be able to IDENTIFY these membrane proteins in a DIAGRAM!!!

Marker Protein –

 

Receptor Protein –

 

Channel Protein –

  1. _________________  ____________________  markers:

        are found on every cell in your body

        identify each type of cell in your body

        enable your immune system to distinguish the cells of your body from those of damaging invaders

 

  1. The dispersal of ink in a beaker is an example of ______________________
  2. Sugar molecules can enter cells through the process of ___________________ diffusion
  3. Channels utilizing facilitated diffusion work in (one/ two) directions (s)
  4. The sodium-potassium pump usually pumps ___________________- into the cell, and _________________________ out of the cell
  5. A cell membrane consists of two types of molecules: __________________________ & __________________________
  6. Most of the food and waste materials that move into and out of a cell go through _____________________ proteins
  7. The cell membrane:

 

  1. Diffusion expends energy (True/ False)
  2. Diffusion takes place from an area of ____________ concentration to an area of ____________ concentration
  3. As a result of diffusion, the concentration of substance becomes __________________ on both sides of a membrane
  4. Molecules that are too large to be moved across a cell membrane can be removed by _____________________
  5. Molecules that are too large to be moved through the cell membrane may be transported into the cell by _____________________
  6. When a cube of sugar is placed in a beaker of water, the sugar molecules spread through the beaker by the process of ______________________

 

Chapter 5

  1. Since enzymes are biological ___________________, they lower the _________________  __________________ needed for a reaction to occur
  2. Factors that affect the ability of an enzyme to work efficiently include _________________, _________________- & __________________
  3. Taken together, all of the thousands of chemical reactions that take place in a cell are called _________________________
  4. The molecule on which an enzyme acts is called a(n) ______________________
  5. Cells use energy for many things, including:

 

 

 

  1. The energy stored in food molecules in living cells is gradually released in a series of linked chemical reactions called a ____________________ pathway
  2. When living cells break down molecules, energy is stored as _______________ & released as __________________
  3. Describe how energy flows through the living world based on the diagram below

 

Sun -> Plants -> Primary Consumers -> Secondary Consumers

9.      Based on the cycle of photosynthesis & respiration, you could say that the ultimate source of energy for all living things on earth is the _______________

  1. Photosynthesis takes place in green __________________, algae & some __________________
  2. Glycolysis occurs in the _________________ of oxygen, while oxidative respiration occurs in the _________________ of oxygen
  3. The major atmospheric byproduct of photosynthesis is _________________
  4. NADP+ is important in photosynthesis because it carries ________________ atoms & ________________ for producing organic molecules
  5. Proton pumps found in the thylakoid are directly responsible for providing the ________________ to produce ______________ molecules
  6. Flower petals have a variety of colors other than green because they possess other types of pigments, called __________________
  7. When a chlorophyll molecule absorbs a photon of light, some of its ________________ are raised to a higher _______________ level.
  8. Pigment molecules absorb ________________ photons. Examples include ____________________ in human eyes, and ____________________ in green plants
  9. As a result of photosynthesis, our atmosphere is now rich in ____________________ gas.
  10. KNOW THIS EQUATION for Oxidative Respiration!!! (The opposite of this is photosynthesis)

C6H12O6 + 6O2 + ADP + P         ->->->      6CO2 + 6H2O + ATP

 

Chapter 6

  1. KNOW THIS TABLE!!! (Fill in from your notes)

 

Somatic Cell (Body Cell)

Gamete (Sex Cell: sperm/ ovum)

46 chromosomes

 

 

Do not occur in pairs

"diploid"

 

 

"n"

Exist throughout the body

 

2 homologues of each chromosome

Only ONE of each chromosome

 

2.      The diploid number of chromosomes in a human skin cell is 46. The number of chromosomes found in a human ovum is ____________

3.      A protein disk that attaches two chromatids to each other in a chromsome __________________

4.      Chromatids - __________________________________________________________________

5.      The X & Y chromosomes are referred to as the ___________ chromosomes

6.      Human Chromosomes:

        Exist in _____ pairs

        Are ____% DNA & ____% protein

        Contain _______________ of genes

 

7.      Circular DNA would most likely be found in what type of cell? _____________________

8.      A mutation in which a piece of a chromosome breaks off and reattaches itself to a nonhomologous chromosome ________________________

9.      In humans, the male determines the sex of the child because males have an ______ and ______ chromosome

10.  The phase of mitosis which is characterized by the arrangement of all chromosomes along the equator of the cell - _________________________

11.  Draw and label each of the following stages of mitosis (Be able to identify each stage in a diagram!!!): Prophase, Metaphase, Anaphase, Telophase

 

 

 

 

12.  The stage of the cell cycle that occupies most of the cell’s life is _________

13.  List the 5 stages of the cell cycle in correct sequence (M, G2, S, G1, C) _____________________

14.  What shape does the chromosome of a bacterium have?

15.  The process by which bacteria reproduce _________________________________

16.  Cells grow & divide at an abnormally high rate in ____________________

17.  Eggs & sperm are the end products of (Mitosis/ Meiosis)

18.  Meiosis reduces the number of gamete chromosomes to __________ the number found in most cells in the body

19.  Crossing-Over - _________________________________________________________________

20.  During meiosis, two successive divisions result in the formation of four ____________ cells

21.  The passing of traits from parents to offspring is called __________________

 

Chapter 7

1.      The dominant allele, F, allows expression of freckles in humans. When homozygous recessive (ff) for this gene, human will not have freckles. Cross 2 heterozygotes using a Punnett Square, and give your genotypic & phenotypic ratios.

 

 

 

 

 

 

2.      Unlike past scientists who had studied heredity, Mendel expressed the results of his experiments in terms of ___________________

3.      If an individual possess two recessive alleles for the same trait, the individual is said to be (homozygous/ heterozygous) (dominant/ recessive) CHOOSE ONE OF EACH!

4.      Phenotype - _____________________________________________________________________

5.      The scientific study of heredity _____________________

6.      The “father” of genetics ___________________  ____________________

7.      Tallness (T) is dominant to shortness (t) in pea plants. What would be the genotype of a pea plant that is heterozygous for tallness? ____________

8.      In rabbits, black fur “B” is dominant over brown fur “b.” Cross two heterozygous black rabbits:

 

 

 

 

What would be the genotypic ratio of the offspring? _____: _____: _____

 

 

What are the phenotypes of the offspring?

 

 

9.      Blood type is an example of what type of inheritance in humans? __________________________

10.  A family record that indicates the occurrence of a trait _____________________

11.  Because the allele for color-blindness is located on the X chromosome, color-blindness is a _______________________ trait

12.  Sex-linked disorders occurs mostly in (Males/ females)

 

ESSAYS – The following are possible essays that may be on the midterm:

 

1.      (Chapter 7) - In a certain breed of dog, black coat color (B)   is dominant over yellow coat color (b). A second, independently assorting gene determines length of fur. Short hair (H) is dominant over long hair (h).

Cross a dog that is heterozygous for both traits with a dog that has a yellow coat and long hair.

 

(On a separate sheet of paper, prepare a dihybrid cross and give the genotypic & phenotypic ratios)

 

2.      (Chapter 3) – Know at least three differences between eukaryotic & prokaryotic cells

 

 

 

3.      (Chapter 3) – Know at least three differences between plant & animal cells

 

 

 

4.      (Chapter 2) – Describe the difference between an ionic and a covalent bond – draw an example of each.

 

 

 

 

 

 

5.      (Chapter 1) – Name & describe each step of the scientific method

 

 

 

 

 

 

6.      (Chapter 1) – Be able to label 5 parts of the microscope.

 

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