CHAPTER 17 CLASSIFYING LIVING THINGS
Importance of Scientific Names
Look at his bug (fig 17-1) Now think of all the possible names it has:
Scientists have ONE NAME for this insect ___________________________________
Scientific Names are composed of a _______________ (capital) + a ________________ (lower case). BOTH names are _________________.
EX: _________________________________ (house cat)
________________________ - A group of organisms that share major characteristics
________________________ - Most specific group or classifying organisms.
A man named _________________________ devised the modern 2-name classification system. He used a ___________________ classification system as well.
Scientific names are written in the ________________ language because:
________________________ was a scientist who grouped organisms according to their ______________________________________.
Today, biologists classify organisms based on the following similarities:
Not all scientists agree on how to classify!
________________________ - The science of classifying living things (organisms) according to their presumed, natural relationships
________________________ - Scientists who examine, classify, and argue about where organisms fit in a group.
Biological Hierarchy of Classification:
(refer to TABLE 17-2)
The more classification ______________ two species share, the more ______________ they have in common.
EX: A house cat & a guppy only share ____ classification groups: Kingdom ________________ & phylum _________________, whereas a house cat (Felis catus) & a mountain lion (Felis concolor) share ____ classification groups: Kingdom _________________ -> Genus _________________. The only difference is the __________________.
_______________________________________ - Organisms evolve similar structures independently, often because they live in similar habitats.
_______________________________________ - Similar features that evolved independently, but serve the same function. Result of covergent evolution.
________________________________ is a problem for taxonomists because similar appearance doesnt necessarily guarantee _____________________________________.
|Shark & Dolphin||Shark||Dolphin|
_______________________________________ - Similar structures that result from common ancestry.
EX: Bird wing, dolphin fin, human arm.
1 - _________________________ - Scientists seek to determine the order in which evolutionary lines diverged, or branched. Organisms are assigned to groups according to __________________________________ not shared by any other organism. These unique characters used to assign an organism to a group are called _______________________________. (Ex: All mammals produce milk, have hair )
DRAWBACK of Cladistics:
ADVANTAGE of Cladistics:
________________________ - Branching diagrams that show the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms.
2 - _________________________ - Scientists classify organisms based on overall similarity, considering as many characteristics as possible.
DRAWBACK of Phenetics:
ADVANTAGE of Phenetics:
Most scientists use a _____________________________________ of taxonomy between ____________________ & _____________________.
Modern technology has allowed scientists to compare ___________________________ sequences of different organisms to more accurately discover evolutionary relationships.
By studying _________________, or random changes in DNA, scientists can study how certain species have evolved.
________________________ - Organisms that are able to interbreed with each other to produce fertile offspring . They do not reproduce with members of other species, but if they DO, offspring are usually ________________. (EX: horse + zebra -> Zebroid)
________________________ - Offspring that result from interbreeding by individuals of different species. (EX: Coyotes, dogs, & wolves are different species in the genus Canis that may interbreed & produce ________________ offspring).
· Evolved before ________________ filled the atmosphere
· Live in ________________ environments
· Gave rise to __________________ (ancestors of __________________)
· Obtain energy from _____________, _____________, ________, & _______
· Live in _______________ environments
· Gave rise to ____________________________________ (ancestors of ___________________ & __________________)
· __________________ (may photosynthesize) or _________________ (ingest food)
Traits of ALL Bacteria (Prokaryotes)
· lack _________________
· lack ______________________________
· Have more methods of obtaining nutrient than eukaryotes
· ______________ form of life
3. __________________________________ (Catchall Kingdom)
· Includes all ________________ eukaryotes NOT classified as plants, animals, or fungi.
· Includes all _____________________ eukaryotes that are heterotrophic (ingest food) or autotrophic (make own food)
· Ancestors of _______________, ________________, & _____________
· EX: Protozoa (amoeba, paramecium), algae (seaweed, kelp), slime molds & water molds
· EX: Mushrooms, molds, yeast
· Difficult to classify in ________________________________ (doesnt seem to fit into either category: Plants or Animals)
· ____________________, ___________________ _____________________
· Obtain food by __________________ __________________ from the environment (_______________________)
· Break down _____________________ matter
· Terrestrial, _____________________, ______________________, _____________________ organisms
· Obtain nutrients by ___________________ (_____________________/ ______________________)
· EX: Mosses, ferns, flowers, trees
· Plant cells have cell walls made of __________________________________
· _______________________, ______________________
· Obtain nutrients by ingesting food (______________________/ _____________________)
· First members of this kingdom evolved in the ___________________
· __________________ known species
· Cells DO NOT have ___________________
· Have a ________________ system (most)
The three MOST SUCCESSFUL groups of multicellular organisms are:
_____________________, _____________________, & ______________________
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