Importance of Scientific Names

Look at his bug (fig 17-1)… Now think of all the possible names it has:





Scientists have ONE NAME for this insect – ___________________________________


Why don’t scientists use common names for organisms?




Scientific Names are composed of a _______________ (capital) + a ________________ (lower case). BOTH names are _________________.


EX: _________________________________ (house cat)




________________________ - A group of organisms that share major characteristics


________________________ - Most specific group or classifying organisms.


A man named _________________________ devised the modern 2-name classification system. He used a ___________________ classification system as well.


There are 3 RULES for using Scientific Names


1.        ___________________________________________________________________

2.        ___________________________________________________________________

3.        ___________________________________________________________________



Scientific names are written in the ________________ language because:





Classification: Organizing Life


________________________ was a scientist who grouped organisms according to their ______________________________________.


Today, biologists classify organisms based on the following similarities:


These similarities reveal ________________________ relationships


Not all scientists agree on how to classify!


________________________ - The science of classifying living things (organisms) according to their presumed, natural relationships


________________________ - Scientists who examine, classify, and argue about where organisms fit in a group.


Biological Hierarchy of Classification:



(refer to TABLE 17-2)


The more classification ______________ two species share, the more ______________ they have in common.


EX: A house cat & a guppy only share ____ classification groups: Kingdom ________________ & phylum _________________, whereas a house cat (Felis catus) & a mountain lion (Felis concolor) share ____ classification groups: Kingdom _________________ -> Genus _________________. The only difference is the __________________.




Classification & Evolution


_______________________________________ - Organisms evolve similar structures independently, often because they live in similar habitats.


_______________________________________ - Similar features that evolved independently, but serve the same function. Result of covergent evolution.


________________________________ is a problem for taxonomists because similar appearance doesn’t necessarily guarantee _____________________________________.



EX: Sharks & Dolphins – same _________________ & ___________________, but different ___________________.


SImilarities Differences
Shark & Dolphin Shark Dolphin


_______________________________________ - Similar structures that result from common ancestry.


EX: Bird wing, dolphin fin, human arm.



Methods of Taxonomy


1 - _________________________ - Scientists seek to determine the order in which evolutionary lines diverged, or branched. Organisms are assigned to groups according to __________________________________ not shared by any other organism. These unique characters used to assign an organism to a group are called _______________________________. (Ex: All mammals produce milk, have hair…)


DRAWBACK of Cladistics:




ADVANTAGE of Cladistics:



________________________ - Branching diagrams that show the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms.




2 - _________________________ - Scientists classify organisms based on overall similarity, considering as many characteristics as possible.



DRAWBACK of Phenetics:



ADVANTAGE of Phenetics:




Most scientists use a _____________________________________ of taxonomy between ____________________ & _____________________.





Taxonomy & Technology


Modern technology has allowed scientists to compare ___________________________  sequences of different organisms to more accurately discover evolutionary relationships.


By studying _________________, or random changes in DNA, scientists can study how certain species have evolved.





What is a Species?


________________________ - Organisms that are able to interbreed with each other to produce fertile offspring . They do not reproduce with members of other species, but if they DO, offspring are usually ________________.  (EX: horse + zebra -> “Zebroid”)



________________________ - Offspring that result from interbreeding by individuals of different species. (EX: Coyotes, dogs, & wolves are different species in the genus Canis that may interbreed & produce ________________ offspring).




1.        __________________________________

        Evolved before ________________ filled the atmosphere

        Live in ________________ environments

        Gave rise to __________________ (ancestors of __________________)

        Obtain energy from _____________, _____________, ________, & _______


2.        __________________________________

        Live in _______________ environments

        Gave rise to ____________________________________ (ancestors of ___________________ & __________________)

        __________________ (may photosynthesize) or _________________ (ingest food)


Traits of ALL Bacteria (Prokaryotes)


        lack _________________

        lack ______________________________

        Have more methods of obtaining nutrient than eukaryotes

        ______________ form of life


3.        __________________________________ (“Catchall” Kingdom)

        Includes all ________________ eukaryotes NOT classified as plants, animals, or fungi.

        Includes all _____________________ eukaryotes that are heterotrophic (ingest food) or autotrophic (make own food)

        Ancestors of _______________, ________________, & _____________

        EX: Protozoa (amoeba, paramecium), algae (seaweed, kelp), slime molds & water molds


4.        __________________________________

        EX: Mushrooms, molds, yeast

        Difficult to classify in ________________________________ (doesn’t seem to fit into either category: Plants or Animals)

        ____________________, ___________________  _____________________

        Obtain food by __________________  __________________ from the environment (_______________________)

        Break down _____________________ matter



5.        ____________________________________________

        Terrestrial, _____________________, ______________________, _____________________ organisms

        Obtain nutrients by ___________________ (_____________________/ ______________________)

        EX: Mosses, ferns, flowers, trees

        Plant cells have cell walls made of __________________________________


6.        __________________________________

        _______________________, ______________________ 

        Obtain nutrients by ingesting food (______________________/ _____________________)

        First members of this kingdom evolved in the ___________________

        __________________ known species

        Cells DO NOT have ___________________

        Have a ________________ system (most)




The three MOST SUCCESSFUL groups of multicellular organisms are:


_____________________, _____________________, & ______________________



General Biology College Prep Biology Feedback Page
Class Rules & Procedures Science Links & Resources Online Tools for Data Analysis
Search Engines Parent's Page Teacher Online Toolbox


Return to Home Page