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CHAPTER 17 – CLASSIFYING LIVING THINGS

Importance of Scientific Names

Look at his bug (fig 17-1)… Now think of all the possible names it has:

 

 

 

 

Scientists have ONE NAME for this insect – ___________________________________

 

Why don’t scientists use common names for organisms?

 

 

 

Scientific Names are composed of a _______________ (capital) + a ________________ (lower case). BOTH names are _________________.

 

EX: _________________________________ (house cat)

 

 

 

________________________ - A group of organisms that share major characteristics

 

________________________ - Most specific group or classifying organisms.

 

A man named _________________________ devised the modern 2-name classification system. He used a ___________________ classification system as well.

 

There are 3 RULES for using Scientific Names

 

1.        ___________________________________________________________________

2.        ___________________________________________________________________

3.        ___________________________________________________________________

 

 

Scientific names are written in the ________________ language because:

 

 

 

 

Classification: Organizing Life

 

________________________ was a scientist who grouped organisms according to their ______________________________________.

 

Today, biologists classify organisms based on the following similarities:

 

These similarities reveal ________________________ relationships

 

Not all scientists agree on how to classify!

 

________________________ - The science of classifying living things (organisms) according to their presumed, natural relationships

 

________________________ - Scientists who examine, classify, and argue about where organisms fit in a group.

 

Biological Hierarchy of Classification:

 

 

(refer to TABLE 17-2)

 

The more classification ______________ two species share, the more ______________ they have in common.

 

EX: A house cat & a guppy only share ____ classification groups: Kingdom ________________ & phylum _________________, whereas a house cat (Felis catus) & a mountain lion (Felis concolor) share ____ classification groups: Kingdom _________________ -> Genus _________________. The only difference is the __________________.

 

 

 

Classification & Evolution

 

_______________________________________ - Organisms evolve similar structures independently, often because they live in similar habitats.

 

_______________________________________ - Similar features that evolved independently, but serve the same function. Result of covergent evolution.

 

________________________________ is a problem for taxonomists because similar appearance doesn’t necessarily guarantee _____________________________________.

 

 

EX: Sharks & Dolphins – same _________________ & ___________________, but different ___________________.

 

SImilarities Differences
Shark & Dolphin Shark Dolphin
     
     
     

 

_______________________________________ - Similar structures that result from common ancestry.

 

EX: Bird wing, dolphin fin, human arm.

 

 

Methods of Taxonomy

 

1 - _________________________ - Scientists seek to determine the order in which evolutionary lines diverged, or branched. Organisms are assigned to groups according to __________________________________ not shared by any other organism. These unique characters used to assign an organism to a group are called _______________________________. (Ex: All mammals produce milk, have hair…)

 

DRAWBACK of Cladistics:

 

 

 

ADVANTAGE of Cladistics:

 

 

________________________ - Branching diagrams that show the evolutionary relationships among groups of organisms.

 

 

 

2 - _________________________ - Scientists classify organisms based on overall similarity, considering as many characteristics as possible.

 

 

DRAWBACK of Phenetics:

 

 

ADVANTAGE of Phenetics:

 

 

 

Most scientists use a _____________________________________ of taxonomy between ____________________ & _____________________.

 

 

 

 

Taxonomy & Technology

 

Modern technology has allowed scientists to compare ___________________________  sequences of different organisms to more accurately discover evolutionary relationships.

 

By studying _________________, or random changes in DNA, scientists can study how certain species have evolved.

 

 

 

 

What is a Species?

 

________________________ - Organisms that are able to interbreed with each other to produce fertile offspring . They do not reproduce with members of other species, but if they DO, offspring are usually ________________.  (EX: horse + zebra -> “Zebroid”)

 

 

________________________ - Offspring that result from interbreeding by individuals of different species. (EX: Coyotes, dogs, & wolves are different species in the genus Canis that may interbreed & produce ________________ offspring).

 

THE SIX KINGDOMS

 

1.        __________________________________

        Evolved before ________________ filled the atmosphere

        Live in ________________ environments

        Gave rise to __________________ (ancestors of __________________)

        Obtain energy from _____________, _____________, ________, & _______

 

2.        __________________________________

        Live in _______________ environments

        Gave rise to ____________________________________ (ancestors of ___________________ & __________________)

        __________________ (may photosynthesize) or _________________ (ingest food)

 

Traits of ALL Bacteria (Prokaryotes)

        _____________________

        lack _________________

        lack ______________________________

        Have more methods of obtaining nutrient than eukaryotes

        ______________ form of life

 

3.        __________________________________ (“Catchall” Kingdom)

        Includes all ________________ eukaryotes NOT classified as plants, animals, or fungi.

        Includes all _____________________ eukaryotes that are heterotrophic (ingest food) or autotrophic (make own food)

        Ancestors of _______________, ________________, & _____________

        EX: Protozoa (amoeba, paramecium), algae (seaweed, kelp), slime molds & water molds

 

4.        __________________________________

        EX: Mushrooms, molds, yeast

        Difficult to classify in ________________________________ (doesn’t seem to fit into either category: Plants or Animals)

        ____________________, ___________________  _____________________

        Obtain food by __________________  __________________ from the environment (_______________________)

        Break down _____________________ matter

 

 

5.        ____________________________________________

        Terrestrial, _____________________, ______________________, _____________________ organisms

        Obtain nutrients by ___________________ (_____________________/ ______________________)

        EX: Mosses, ferns, flowers, trees

        Plant cells have cell walls made of __________________________________

 

6.        __________________________________

        _______________________, ______________________ 

        Obtain nutrients by ingesting food (______________________/ _____________________)

        First members of this kingdom evolved in the ___________________

        __________________ known species

        Cells DO NOT have ___________________

        Have a ________________ system (most)

 

 

 

The three MOST SUCCESSFUL groups of multicellular organisms are:

 

_____________________, _____________________, & ______________________

 

    

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