CHAPTER 18: BACTERIA & VIRUSES
Bacteria exist in 3 different shapes:
Traits of Prokaryotes (Bacteria):
Bacteria Can Be Classified According to these 3 things:
Bacteria Can have 2 different types of cell walls:
__________________________________ - A special staining procedure that reveals the chemical difference between the 2 types of bacterial cell walls.
This staining procedure is important in diagnosing diseases caused by bacteria because:
Bacteria Reproduce by:
1. ____________________________________________ -
2. _____________________________________________ -
Bacteria reproduce __________________.
Bacteria are successful because they can use a wide variety of foods.
Converting light energy into food molecules
____________________________: Converting light energy into food molecules
Making complex organic molecules from energy in inorganic molecules, such as ammonia or
____________________________: Making complex organic molecules from energy in inorganic molecules, such as ammonia or methane.
Most bacteria are ______________________, they feed off of living things, causing disease.
1. ____________________________________________ - Return nutrients to the environment by breaking down organic matter, releasing CO2, N, P, S, H2O, nutrients that plants need to grow.
2. ______________________________________________ - Convert atmospheric nitrogen to ammonia (a Nitrogen compound that plants can absorb)
3. ______________________________________________ - Adds flavor to foods (cabbage -> sauerkraut, cucumbers-> pickles); produce dairy products (yogurt, sour cream); produce insulin & antibiotics
1. ______________________________________________ - Disease-causing bacteria. They cause damage to hosts tissues, may be transmitted through the air, and produce toxins that attack cells.
2. ____________________________________________ - Bacteria ferment sugars on teeth -> lactic acid is produced -> loss of calcium -> break down of proteins in tooth enamel
3. ______________________________________________ - Stress creates an environment beneficial to bacterial growth.
4. ______________________________________________ - Botulism, Salmonella, E. coli, Cholera are examples of bacteria spread in this fashion.
To prevent contamination:
Bacteria can be spread through the air (examples): Tuberculosis, diptheria, whooping cough
(Refer to figure 18-11 to see how a vaccine works)
Examples of antibiotics: Penicillin, Tetracyclin, Streptomycin
Many bacteria are becoming resistant to antibiotics because of _______________ and ________________ of antibiotics.
Bacteria acquire resistance through:
Refer to figure 18-13.
Viruses are not considered to be Alive because:
If viruses are not living things, then why do we study them in biology?
Tour of an AIDS Virus (p. 346)
HIV destroys large numbers of ____________ that fight _______________ in the body. In early stages, only _____________ symptoms appear. Within 10 years, T-cell levels can drop drastically. When T-cell levels have gone below __________, a person is said to have AIDS, Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome. Patients die of ________________ __________________that their bodies cannot fight due to lack of defense from the _____________ system, more specifically from _______________.
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Antibiotics cannot be used to treat viruses
Antibiotics cannot be used to treat viruses because:
Effective Treatments include:
___________, ____________ virus & ___________ virus have surface proteins whose genes constantly _______________ & ______________. _____________ system does not recognize new surface proteins and cannot fight the mutated virus.
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