(Also includes Chapter 24: Adaptation to Life on Land)

Phylum Porifera (Sponges) – “Pore Body”

        Habitat: _______________________________

        Spend their lives attached to a ________________________

        Body plan is __________________________, meaning they cannot be divided into corresponding sections and they have no definite shape

        Feeding Mechanism:



        _____________________ - A network of tough interlocking spikes of Calcium and Silicon meshed with  ___________________ (a protein). Found in between inner & outer layer of sponge, and form the ________________ of the sponge.

        Reproduction: (fig 25-2)




        Commercial Uses of a sponge:




Question: Why wouldn’t you want to wash your car with a natural sponge?



Phylum Cnideria (Cniderians) – “Stinging Tentacled Animals”

        Examples: Coral, Hydra, Sea Anemone, Jellyfish

        Habitat: __________________________________

        Display ___________________________________, all body parts radiate from a central axis

        Have a ___________ with only __________ opening to the outside, which is surrounded by a _______________________________________

        Function of tentacles:




        ___________________________ - Stinging cells in the tentacles. They are stinging, harpoon-like structures that fire projectiles containing ___________ that immobilize prey

        2 distinct life stages (2 different body forms):






Phylum Platylhelminthes (Flatworm) Platyhelminthes = 2 Greek words: “flat” + “worm”

        Examples: Tapeworm, Planarian

        Habitat: ________________________________________________________





Most species of flatworms are _________________________, they are capable of producing both eggs & sperm. Hermaphroditic mating:




        ___________________________ - Concentrates sensory organs at front end of animal. Flatworms were the first organisms to evolve a definite head.

        Feeding Mechanism:



Question: Would it be beneficial to a parasite to kill its host? Why/why not?



        Example: _____________________________, which infests humans, grows more than 10m (30 ft!!!)

* Has a specialized parasitic way of life
* No digestive system
* Nutrients from host are absorbed directly into worms’ skin
* Causes nausea, pain, abdominal swelling
* Responsible for the disease Schistosmiasis

To avoid Beef Tapeworm, ___________________________________


Phylum Nematoda (Roundworm)


        Body is shaped like thick thread, tapered at both ends

        Body appears __________________ in a __________________________





Separate sexes exist (males are smaller than females!)


        Roundworm play an important role in genetic research (Scientists are close to identifying all 10,000 genes of the nematode)

        Nematodes can cause disease and damage to livestock (puppies must be “wormed”)

        Life cycle of nematode eggs continues when a person consumes the nematode’s eggs. This can occur if:



Worm Organizer Table

Characteristics Flatworm Roundworm
Live in damp or wet environment    
Capable of asexual reproduction    
Most are Hermaphrodites    
Most are Parasites    
Body appears in Cross Section    


Phylum Molluska (Mollusks)   In Latin, “Mollusk” = “soft”

        Examples: Clams, Scallops, Mussels, Squid, Oyster, Octopus









        Most Mollusks display __________________________________, they can be separated into nearly mirror-image halves by being cut lengthwise along the midline of the body.

         3 Classes of Mollusks: 

Class Gastropoda (Gastropods)

        Examples: Slugs, Snails

        Habitat: ________________________________________

        _____________________ Symmetry

        Motile – ___________________________________________________

        Brightly colored & coiled shell

        Feeding mechanism:






Class Bivalvia (Bivalves)

        Examples: Oysters, Mussels, Scallops, Clams

        _____________________ Symmetry

        ________   shells

        Feeding Mechanism: _________________________________________




        Muscular foot is wedge-shaped & used for:



Class Cephalopoda (Cephalopods)

        Examples: Squid, Octopus, Nautiluses

        _____________________ OR ___________________ Symmetry

        Habitat: ___________________________




        Well developed nervous system

        Feeding Mechanism:



        ____________________ shells or ____________ shells

        Body consists of:







        Muscular foot has been modified to numerous arms


Octopus defense mechanisms:






Phylum Annelida (Annelids) - Segmented worms

        Examples: Earthworm, Leech

        Feeding Mechanism:





        ______________________ Symmetry

        ______________________ body plan

        Different regions of the body can be specialized for different functions








        ______________________ - Tubules present on each segment of the worm that remove liquid wastes



Phylum Arthropoda (Arthropods)   “Arthropoda” = “Jointed Leg”

        Examples: Spiders, Insects, Centipedes, Scorpions, Shrimp, Crab, Lobster

        Habitat: ________________________

        _____________________ Symmetry

        Arthropods are the largest, most diverse Phylum






        Insect Gas Exchange: Insects have adapted their method of gas exchange for life on land.

    Tubes called ______________ carry Oxygen directly to muscles
   ________________ are pores that allow air into the body for gas exchange


        Arthropods affect human lives:


Beneficial Harmful


Phylum Echinodermata (Echinoderms)

        Examples: Starfish, Sand Dollars, Sea Urchins,

        Habitat: Marine, aquatic

        ______________________ Symmetry

        Water Vascular System:



Water vascular system functions in locomotion, feeding, and gas exchange.


        Do not have __________________________________, thus no efficient means of regulating _____________________________.

        Obtain oxygen by:



        Internal distribution of O2 and nutrients occurs by:



Phylum Chordata (Chordates)

        ______________________ Symmetry

        All chordates share four features:






        3 Subphyla:


Subphylum Urochordata

        Examples: Tunicates, Sea squirts

        Feeding Mechanism: Filter particles of food through the water (similar to the sponge)



        Larval stage: ____________________________________________

Adult stage: _____________________________________________


Subphylum Cephalochordata

        Examples: Lancelets

        Feeding Mechanism:


        They bury their tails in the sand/ mud, and expose head to water in order to feed

        Retain ____________________________________________________ throughout life


Subphylum Vertebrata

        Examples: Fishes, Amphibians, Reptiles, Birds, Mammals (humans)

        Complex organ systems




        Notochord replaced by ___________________________________

        Reproduction & Development:







        Two phyla/ Subphyla best adapted to life on land:






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