CHAPTER 8 HOW GENES WORK (DNA)
There were ___ major groups of scientists that researched DNA (whether they were trying to or not!)
_____________________________ discovered that genetic material, or DNA, could be transferred between living & dead bacteria.
He was trying to identify two strains of Pneumococcus bacteria, when he observed _______________________, a process in which a bacterium takes up foreign DNA.
One strain of Pneumococcus formed ___________________ colonies, and one strain formed __________________ colonies. To determine which bacteria were virulent, he injected BOTH strain into mice. This is what happened (Figure 8-1) GRIFFITHS EXPERIMENT:
Griffith found that:
____________________ identifies the agent of transformation.
Was the substance that made nonvirulent bacteria -> virulent bacteria _________________ or _____________?
His research proved that __________________________________________________ in these bacteria
Each organism has a _____________________ combination of characteristics encoded in _________________________________________
___________________________ & _________________________ confirmed that DNA is the genetic material.
They performed an experiment using _________________________________ sulfur (______) & phosphorus (______), & viruses that infect bacteria.
This is what happened: (Figure 8-2)
What did they conclude?
Scientists KNEW that DNA:
Scientists KNEW that DNA:
* ____________________________ (Deoxyribose)
* ____________________________ (TWO groups)
__________________ - larger, two-ringed bases (ADENINE, GUANINE)
__________________ - smaller, single ringed bases (CYTOSINE, THYMINE)
_____________________________ developed ______________________________.
A = T, C = G
(The amount of Adenine = the amount of Thymine in a DNA molecule, and the amount of Cytosine = the amount of Guanine)
_____________________________ used X-Ray diffraction images to suggest that DNA resembles a tightly coiled spring, a shape called a ________________.
___________________________ & __________________________ (1950s) built a model proving the structure of DNA is a _______________________ _____________________, composed of two strands of nucleotides held together by hydrogen bonds. They won the ____________________________ in 1962.
_____________________________ - The process of copying DNA. This must occur ____________________ ____________________________________________
The 2 strands of the double helix are _____________________ to one another, which means that the ____________________ of _____________ on one strand determines the sequence of bases on the other strand.
When the strands are separated, a _____________________________________ is made from the original.
The process of ____________________ involves several __________________-
During ________________________, a ________________________ strand of DNA is made for each original strand of DNA. For EXAMPLE, if a portion of the original, or ______________ strand is CCTAGCT, the new strand will be GGATCGA.
What will be the complementary strand of DNA if the original strand reads TAGCCATTG ?
A ____________________ is a change in DNA. This can occur if a base is accidentally inserted, left out, or substituted for another base during replication. This can result in ____________________ __________________, which can turn out to be lethal. For example, ________________________________ is a single gene disorder in which ___________________ is substituted for another. An entirely different ___________________ is produced, resulting in sickled (misshapen) Red Blood Cells, anemia, heart disease & kidney disease.
A ____________________ is an environmental agent such as ultraviolet light & chemicals that can cause defects in DNA structure, or ___________________.
________________________________ - The use of the genetic information in DNA to make proteins.
2 Stages of Gene Expression:
DNA -> (transcription) -> RNA -> (translation) -> PROTEIN
THREE TYPES OF RNA:
_____________________________ - Genetic information encoded in _________ is transferred to an ________ molecule
Every ______ nucleotides in ______ specifies a particular _________________________
Each of these ________________________ ____________________ is called a ________________.
The ____________________ of amino acids in a __________________ determines:
(REFER TO GENETIC CODE TABLE FROM BOOK)
__________________________________ - Correspondence sequence between nucletide triplets in _________ and amino acids in ___________________
Any of the ______ bases (A, U, C, G) found in ___________ can occur at any of the _____ positions of a ______________.
Thus, ______ different possible ________________________ are possible in the genetic code. (4X4X4 = 64)
Since there are ______ possible _____________, but only ______ different ___________________________, more than ____ codon may specify a single _______________________
START Codon __________ initiates the start of protein production.
STOP Codons _________, __________, & ___________ specify the _______ of an __________________ sequence, or ____________________.
The code contained in a particular gene results in a ___________________ ____________________.
_____________________________ - The process by which a genetic message is deciphered.
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