CHAPTER 4 VIRUSES & MONERANS
___________________ - A small thing made of a chromosome-like part surrounded by a
The chromosome-like part carries the ______________________ _______________________.
The protein coat is responsible for ______________________ ________________________ of
Viruses have many shapes, including:
Characteristics of a virus:
- Neither _____________________ nor ________________________
- Difficult for scientists to _______________________
- Can only be seen with an _________________________ ___________________________
- Have no ______________________ ______________________
- Can reproduce ONLY inside ________________________ __________________________
Viruses Are Classified According To:
(plant? Animal? Fungi? Moneran? Protist? These organisms all serve as
hosts to viruses)
____________________________ - An organism that provides food for a parasite.
____________________________ - An organism that lives in/ on another organism and gets
food from it.
Viruses are ___________________________ that live off of other organisms
Viruses infect SPECIFIC organisms:
Tobacco virus ONLY infects tobacco plants
Rabies virus ONLY infects the nervous system of mammals.
Common Cold virus ONLY infects cells along the air passageway to the lungs.
Viruses & Disease
Viruses cause disease in humans and other living things. In humans, viruses are spread by
_____________________, ________________________, ________________________,
____________________, & ________________________ ___________________________.
________________________________________________________________________________ - A
viral disease that destroys the bodys ________________________
________________________. When the immune system is not functioning properly, the body
cant fight ___________________________. People with this disease die from secondary
infections they get that they cant fight off with their immune systems.
This disease is spread by:
There is no _______________________ _________________________.
Plant viruses are spread by __________________________ or ___________________________.
Sucking insects break through the ______________________ _______________________ of the
plant & allow virus to get into the host cell.
Methods by which Viruses Cause Disease
- Virus attaches to ___________________________________
- Chromosome-like part enters cell
- Chromosome-like part takes over cell
- Virus changes _________________________ ____________________________ in host cell so
that host cell produces more __________________________ instead of performing usual tasks.
- Cell breaks open & releases new viruses which invade other cells
- Tissue damage & ________________ result
Examples: ____________________, ____________________, ____________________,
- _______________________ and ______________________ around lips are caused by viruses
- No symptoms appear until _______________________ or _____________________ cause virus to
become active & reproduce
- Cold sores may disappear for long periods of time, but ______________________ remains in
- Groups of infected cells become lumps called ________________________. Some are
harmless, an example is a _________________. Others can be malignant, an example
Diseases caused by viruses are hard to treat or cure because there are no known
_________________________ that destroy viruses. Since a virus is constantly changing its
hereditary material (mutating), it is hard to find a drug to kill it.
- Certain _________________________ ____________________________ _______________________
(WBCs) can surround & destroy a virus.
- ______________________________ - chemicals made by the body that help destroy viruses or
harmful bacteria NOT captured by WBCs. Antibodies _______________________ to viruses or
harmful bacteria to help destroy them directly. They also can hold a virus or bacteria
______________________ until WBCs can surround & destroy them. Each antibody acts only
on ____________________________________________ kind of virus or bacteria.
- ______________________________ - A chemical substance that interferes with the way a
virus reproduces. Human cells produce this when they are first attacked by a virus.
Interferon will attack any type of virus, and are ______________________
_______________________, unlike __________________________.
- ______________________________ - Substances made from weakened or dead viruses; used to
treat viral or bacterial disease (polio, rubella, measles, flu). The body reacts to
vaccines by producing _____________________________ to protect against the disease.
Virus Concept Map
Characteristics of Monerans:
Lack a ___________________________
Have ________________________ ______________________ within the
Lack ____________________ _______________________ found in plant & animal cells
Two Groups of Monerans:
- Very small, ____________________________ monerans
- Live everywhere: _________________, _________________, _________________,
- Classified into three groups according to shape:
___________________________, ____________________________, ___________________________
- Can be found as ____________________________________, _____________________________, or
- Some singles and pairs may join together in a _________________________ or
- _____________________________ - A group of similar cells growing next to each other that
do not deoend on each other
Bacterial Cell Structures
- Do not have a __________________________
- Have one main ____________________________
- Doesnt have most ________________________________ seen in plant/ animal cells
- Have _____________________________ and ________________________________
- ____________________________ - Sticky outer layer that helps keep cell from drying out
and helps the cell stick to food & other cells. (Not all bacterial cells have this.)
- ____________________________ - Long, whiplike thread that helps with locomotion (Not
all bacterial cells have this)
_______________________________ - Process of one organism dividing into two organisms.
The ______________________________ ______________________________ of the bacterial cell
makes a copy of itself, then the cell divides.
_______________________________________________________ - Reproducing of a living thing
by only one parent.
What Conditions do Bacteria need to LIVE?
- Specific ___________________________ (0-75º C)
- ____________________________ (only certain bacteria)
- ____________________________ (most bacteria)
If living conditions are not right for bacterial growth, they can survive by forming
_________________________________ - A thick-walled structure that forms inside the
cell, enclosing all the nuclear material & some cytoplasm.
They can withstand ________________________, _______________________, & extremely
__________________ conditions without damage.
When conditions return to ____________________________, endospores -> bacteria
How Do Bacteria Get FOOD?
_________________________________ - Bacteria that feed on living things
_________________________________ - Organisms that feed on dead, decomposing
_________________________________ - Living things that get their food from breaking
down dead matter into simpler chemicals. These bacteria are important because they
return minerals and other materials back to the soil, where other organisms can use them.
_________________________________ - Some bacteria can make their own food by
Other bacteria use energy in __________________________ &
___________________________ to make food.
Bacteria and Disease
___________________________, ___________________________, ___________________________,
___________________________, & _____________________________ are parasites in humans
that cause disease.
____________________________- A disease found in livestock that can be passed onto
How Do We Know Bacteria Cause Disease?
In 1876, a German doctor named _______________________ _______________________ used a
scientific method to show that _______________________ was caused by a bacterium.
- The organism must be present in a ________________________ _______________________ when
the disease occurs
- The organism must be taken from the ______________________ and grown in the
- When the organisms from the lab are injected into ________________________
_______________________, they must cause the same disease in the healthy host
- The organism must be removed from the new hosts, grown in the lab, and shown to be the
_________________ organism from the first _______________________.
Disease that can be passed onto other organisms by:
- _______________________________ (strept throat, pneumonia, TB)
- _______________________________ (dysentery, ecoli)
- _______________________________ (herpes, AIDS, syphilis, gonorrhea)
- ________________________________ (mosquitoes ->malaria; ticks -> lyme disease)
Bacteria that get energy from _____________________________ recycle this matter when
they decompose it so that other organisms may use it to grow.
Recycling of Matter
- Bacteria in the stomach of a cow help break down ______________________ &
______________________. This is beneficial to both organisms because they both get food!
- Bacteria make ______________________________ - chemical substances that kill/ slow the
growth of bacteria.
- Bacteria gives certain foods __________________________
- Bacteria is responsible for the production of _______________________ cheese,
_____________________ cheese, _____________________________, ____________________________,
____________________________ and _____________________________.
- Bacteria are used to produce _______________________________,
_____________________________, and ______________________________.
________________________________ - The use of living things to solve practical
- ____________________________________ - Heating milk to kill harmful bacteria
- ____________________________________ - Heating foods to kill bacteria, then sealing them
in airtight containers.
- ____________________________________ - Removing water from food to prevent bacterial
- Use of ___________________________________ - Chemicals that kill bacteria on living
- Use of ___________________________________ - Chemicals that destroy bacteria on non-living
- ____________________________________ - Prevent bacterial infections in organisms
Small, one-celled monerans that contain ___________________________ and can make their
Cell Structure of Blue-Green Bacteria
- Do not have a _______________________ or typical plant cell ______________________
- Have a _____________________________
- Have ____________________________________________________________. Sometimes these
appear _____________, black, brown, or purple. The _______________________________ gets
its name from abundant growth of this bacteria at certain times of the year.
- Outer ______________________________________ layer holds the cell to other cells
- _____________________________________ let cells float to the surface to get sun
Where do Blue-Green Bacteria Live?
____________________, ______________________, __________________________________,
- They can occur as ___________________________________, _______________________________,
and long thread-like ______________________________.
- They make their own _____________________ by ____________________________________. In
doing this, they also provide ______________________________ and serve as a
_________________________________ to aquatic ____________________________ (organisms that
CANT make their own food)
- If they overgrow, they can cause ________________________