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CHAPTER 4 – VIRUSES & MONERANS

 

VIRUSES

___________________ - A small thing made of a chromosome-like part surrounded by a protein coat.

The chromosome-like part carries the ______________________ _______________________.

The protein coat is responsible for ______________________ ________________________ of the virus.

Viruses have many shapes, including:

 

____________________     _____________________      ______________________

 

Characteristics of a virus:

 Viruses Are Classified According To:

  1. _______________________________________________________________________________________
  2. _______________________________________________________________________________________
  3. _______________________________________________________________________________________

(plant? Animal? Fungi? Moneran? Protist? – These organisms all serve as hosts to viruses)

____________________________ - An organism that provides food for a parasite.

____________________________ - An organism that lives in/ on another organism and gets food from it.

Viruses are ___________________________ that live off of other organisms

Viruses infect SPECIFIC organisms:
Tobacco virus ONLY infects tobacco plants
Rabies virus ONLY infects the nervous system of mammals.
Common Cold virus ONLY infects cells along the air passageway to the lungs.

Viruses & Disease
Viruses cause disease in humans and other living things. In humans, viruses are spread by _____________________, ________________________, ________________________, ____________________, & ________________________ ___________________________.

________________________________________________________________________________ - A viral disease that destroys the body’s ________________________ ________________________. When the immune system is not functioning properly, the body can’t fight ___________________________. People with this disease die from secondary infections they get that they can’t fight off with their immune systems.

This disease is spread by:

 

There is no _______________________ _________________________.

Plant viruses are spread by __________________________ or ___________________________. Sucking insects break through the ______________________ _______________________ of the plant & allow virus to get into the host cell.

 

 

Methods by which Viruses Cause Disease

  1. __________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________

Examples: ____________________, ____________________, ____________________, __________________

    2.    __________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________

    3.    __________________________________________________________________________________________

__________________________________________________________________________________________


Controlling Viruses

Diseases caused by viruses are hard to treat or cure because there are no known _________________________ that destroy viruses. Since a virus is constantly changing its hereditary material (mutating), it is hard to find a drug to kill it.

Virus Concept Map

MONERANS

Characteristics of Monerans:

 Two Groups of Monerans:


Bacteria

___________________________, ____________________________, ___________________________

 

Bacterial Cell Structures 

 

_______________________________ - Process of one organism dividing into two organisms. The ______________________________ ______________________________ of the bacterial cell makes a copy of itself, then the cell divides.

_______________________________________________________ - Reproducing of a living thing by only one parent.

 

What Conditions do Bacteria need to LIVE?

If living conditions are not right for bacterial growth, they can survive by forming ____________________________.

_________________________________ - A thick-walled structure that forms inside the cell, enclosing all the nuclear material & some cytoplasm.

They can withstand ________________________, _______________________, & extremely __________________ conditions without damage.

When conditions return to ____________________________, endospores -> bacteria

 

How Do Bacteria Get FOOD?

_________________________________ - Bacteria that feed on living things

_________________________________ - Organisms that feed on dead, decomposing materials

_________________________________ - Living things that get their food from breaking down dead matter into simpler chemicals. These bacteria are important because they return minerals and other materials back to the soil, where other organisms can use them.

_________________________________ - Some bacteria can make their own food by photosynthesis.

Other bacteria use energy in __________________________ & ___________________________ to make food.

Bacteria and Disease

___________________________, ___________________________, ___________________________, ___________________________, & _____________________________ are parasites in humans that cause disease.

____________________________- A disease found in livestock that can be passed onto humans.

 

How Do We Know Bacteria Cause Disease?

In 1876, a German doctor named _______________________ _______________________ used a scientific method to show that _______________________ was caused by a bacterium.

 

Koch Postulates:

 

Communicable Diseases

Disease that can be passed onto other organisms by:

 

Helpful Bacteria

Bacteria that get energy from _____________________________ recycle this matter when they decompose it so that other organisms may use it to grow.

Recycling of Matter

________________________________ - The use of living things to solve practical problems.

 

Controlling Bacteria

 

Blue-Green Bacteria

Small, one-celled monerans that contain ___________________________ and can make their own ______________________.


Cell Structure of Blue-Green Bacteria

 

Where do Blue-Green Bacteria Live?

____________________, ______________________, __________________________________, ____________________________________________, _________________________________________.

 

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