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CHAPTER 26 - ARTHROPODS

 

Class Arachnida (Spiders & their Relatives)

 Characteristics of All Arachnids (Spiders, Scorpions, Mites, and Ticks)

 Chelicerae:

 

  

 

Pedipalps:

  

 

 

Cephalothorax:

 

  

 

Abdomen:

 

  

 

 

 Spiders

 

 

Adaptations to live on land

Air -> _____________________ (openings) -> ____________________ -> oxygen from air is moistened -> dissolved into blood stream

 

 

Common functions of Silk include:

 

 

 

 

 

 

Courtship Rituals of Spiders

 

  

Scorpions

 

 

 

 

 

Mites 

 

 

 

 

* Punch holes in skin; cause severe itching
* Carry viruses that damage food crops
* Cause feather loss in birds; mange in dogs
* Cause decreased wool production in sheep

 

 Ticks

 

Horseshoe Crabs 

  

 

 

Class Insecta (Insects, Millipedes, Centipedes)

 Insects (Grasshoppers, beetles, termites, fleas, ants)

 

_________________________ - The study of insects

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

 

Adaptations to live on land:

 

 

 

Development in Insects

 Direct Development (Spiders, scorpions, ticks) – A miniature copy of the adult form hatches from the egg.

Incomplete Metamorphosis (Grasshoppers, dragonflies, mayflies, cockroaches) –

 

 

 

 

Nymph – A smaller version of the adult, similar structure without wings or a mature reproductive system

 

Complete Metamorphosis (Flies, beetles, ants, wasps, bees, butterflies, moths) –

 

 

 

 

 

 

     

 

      Larva – Immature form of an insect  (ex: caterpillar)

 

      Pupa Stage  - Insect forms a cocoon; tissues & organs are replaced with new ones.

 

Insects can be Harmful:

* Eat plants
* Transmit diseases to plants and animals (sleeping sickness, malaria)
* Become resistant to pesticides

Insects can be Beneficial:

* Pollination of food crops
* Production of silk (caterpillars of silk moths), honey & beeswax (bees)
* Food source in some parts of the world (grasshopper tacos – yummy!)
* Stabilize ecosystems

 

 Millipedes “Thousand feet”

 

 

 

Cenitpede “Hundred feet”

 

 

 

 

Class Crustacea  (Crayfish, lobsters, pillbugs, beach hoppers, barnacles, copepods)

Characteristics of Crusteans  (successful Aquatic Arthropods)

  

Cannot live on Land because:

 

Decapods “10 feet”    (Lobsters, shrimp, crabs, crayfish)

  

Isopods  “Equal feet”    (Pill bugs & relatives)

  

Amphipods  “Two different kinds of feet”    (Beach hoppers)

 

 

Barnacles: 

  

Daphnia  (Water Flea)

  

Copepod 

   

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