CHAPTER 28: DNA LIFES CODE
___________ (Deoxyribonucleic Acid): A molecule that makes up genes and determines the traits of all living things.
· Alternating ____________________ & _____________________ (Phosphate group). These make up the ________________ portion of the ladder.
· ____________________________ make up the _____________ of ladder. Four Nitrogen bases exist:
________________________________ states that ____=____, and ____=____
__________________________ - Sugar + Phosphatic Acid + Nitrogen Base (A,T,C,G)
____________________ & _____________________ built a model to show that DNA was a ______________________________ (structure).
- Pieces of DNA on a chromosome that code for certain traits.
_________________________________ performed an experiment that showed:
The Nitrogen bases ____________________ on the nucleotides in DNA spell out a message that is stored in code form. The ______________ of the ___________ is the __________________.
order of bases on this gene codes for ________________ Red Blood Cells
The order of bases on this gene codes for ________________ Red Blood Cells
The order of bases on this gene codes for ________________ Red Blood Cells. Changing ONE Nitrogen base will change the ___________________ being made. This may not be the correct protein needed for certain functions in the body.
Consider our Alphabet. The letters are always the same, but we put them in __________________________________ to form ____________________ _________________. Example:
(Ribonucleic Acid) A chemical that acts as a messenger for DNA.
_________ (Ribonucleic Acid) A chemical that acts as a messenger for DNA.
DNA vs. RNA
Three Forms of RNA:
· ____________ (Messenger RNA): In nucleus. Can leave nucleus to make proteins for DNA
· ____________ (Transfer RNA): In cytoplasm. Carries Amino Acids to ribosome to be added to growing proteins
· ____________ (Ribosomal RNA): In cytoplasm. Makes up the ribosome.
2 Steps Involved in Making Proteins:
_____________________________: A DNA copy of the gene is made (DNA -> RNA) (Occurs in the ____________________)
_____________________________: mRNA, tRNA, & rRNA work together to assemble Amino Acids into a Protein (Occurs in the ___________________)
Transcription (Step 1 in making a protein) Refer to diagram 28-7.
mRNA copy is made
of DNA to make proteins
mRNA copy is made
The Genetic Code The code that translates DNA language into proteins from mRNA codons.
___________________ - 3 nucleotides of mRNA that determine which amino acid will be added to a growing protein chain.
Codons may be translated into amino acids using the following chart:
_______: START codon. (Methionine). Initiates the start of protein production.
____________________________: STOP codons. These signal the end of the protein
EXAMPLE: Translate the following sequence of DNA:
DNA: TAC TTA AGT CCG ATC
Amino Acid: __________________________________________
Translation (Step 2 in making proteins) RNA -> Protein
· ____________ binds to _____________with AUG, ____________ codon to initiate the beginning of the protein
· ___________ molecules carry the correct ________________________ to the ribosome
· ____________________, 3-nucletide sequences that are complementary to mRNA codons, assure that the correct amino acid is carried to the ribosome.
· Amino Acids are added to the growing protein chain until a __________ codon is reached.
· New ________________ is ___________________ into the cell to perform its function.
In a mutation, Nitrogen bases are joined incorrectly during DNA replication.
Example: ___ = ___ or ___ = ___ (correct pairing would be C = G or T = A)
The message or code has now changed. An ____________________________ will be made, and a ________________________________ may appear.
Example: Hemophiliacs have a _______________________ in the gene that codes for a ___________________ that __________________________. Therefore, they cannot _________________________________.
- Two organisms that have the same DNA; they are exact copies of each other.
___________________ - Two organisms that have the same DNA; they are exact copies of each other.
Identical Twins: Fraternal Twins:
Animals are currently being cloned. Do you think humans should be cloned?
- Bringing together of 2 living things to produce desirable offspring.
_____________________________ - Bringing together of 2 living things to produce desirable offspring.
This process is used to produce:
_______________________________________ - DNA that is formed when DNA from one organism is placed into the DNA of another organism.
Splicing Genes works because:
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